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Grinberg N, Cretu M, Adascalitei A. Computer Models of Current Transformers in the Presence of Harmonic Distortion. In Management of Technological Changes, 1, pp. 633-636. 2009.

Abstract: A theoretical analysis of CTs behavior has been developed by means of the equivalent circuit. The CTs performance under distorted
conditions is usually characterized by means of the frequency response test. Models of the instrument transformers are especially
important for studying CT saturation, ferro-resonance phenomena, harmonics and sub-harmonics and their effect on the performance
of protective relaying. The main features of the two CT models are analyzed. Some issues about the initial magnetic flux estimation
are addressed. CTs errors are strongly influenced by the waveform of the primary current. A procedure for the on-line estimation of
the primary current, based on a self-scheduling nonlinear technique is discussed.

Keywords: saturated current transformer model


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